Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy

ISSN 2196-5625 CN 32-1884/TK

Controllability and stability of primary frequency control from thermostatic loads with delays

1. Center for Electric Power and Energy, DTU, Lyngby, Denmark; 2. Power Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Fund Project:

EUDP funded project Ecogrid 2.0; for the HeatReserves project and of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and Swisselectric Research for the SmartGrid-Polysun: Design Tool for Local Load Management project.

  • Article
  • |
  • Figures
  • |
  • Metrics
  • |
  • Reference
  • |
  • Related
  • |
  • Cited by
  • |
  • Materials

    There is an increasing interest in exploiting the flexibility of loads to provide ancillary services to the grid. In this paper we study how response delays and lockout constraints affect the controllability of an aggregation of refrigerators offering primary frequency control (PFC). First we examine the effect of delays in PFC provision from an aggregation of refrigerators, using a two-area power system. We propose a framework to systematically address frequency measurement and response delays and we determine safe values for the total delays via simulations. We introduce a controllability index to evaluate PFC provision under lockout constraints of refrigerators compressors. We conduct extensive simulations to study the effects of measurement delay, ramping times, lockout durations and rotational inertia on the controllability of the aggregation and system stability. Finally, we discuss solutions for offering reliable PFC provision from thermostatically controlled loads under lockout constraints and we propose a supervisory control to enhance the robustness of their controllers.

    Cited by
Get Citation
Article Metrics
  • Abstract:
  • PDF:
  • HTML:
  • Cited by:
  • Received:
  • Revised:
  • Adopted:
  • Online: January 09,2017
  • Published: