Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy

ISSN 2196-5625 CN 32-1884/TK

Optimal Offering of Energy Storage in UK Day-ahead Energy and Frequency Response Markets

1.Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK;2.Statkraft UK Ltd., London, UK;3.Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

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    The offering strategy of energy storage in energy and frequency response (FR) markets needs to account for country-specific market regulations around FR products as well as FR utilization factors, which are highly uncertain. To this end, a novel optimal offering model is proposed for stand-alone price-taking storage participants, which accounts for recent FR market design developments in the UK, namely the trade of FR products in time blocks, and the mutual exclusivity among the multiple FR products. The model consists of a day-ahead stage, devising optimal offers under uncertainty, and a real-time stage, representing the storage operation after uncertainty is materialized. Furthermore, a concrete methodological framework is developed for comparing different approaches around the anticipation of uncertain FR utilization factors (deterministic one based on expected values, deterministic one based on worst-case values, stochastic one, and robust one), by providing four alternative formulations for the real-time stage of the proposed offering model, and carrying out an out-of-sample validation of the four model instances. Finally, case studies employing real data from UK energy and FR markets compare these four instances against achieved profits, FR delivery violations, and computational scalability.

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  • Received:September 30,2023
  • Revised:January 18,2024
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  • Online: March 27,2024
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