Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy

ISSN 2196-5625 CN 32-1884/TK

  • Volume 4,Issue 1,2016 Table of Contents
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    • >Special Issue on Power Quality
    • Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Power Quality

      2016, 4(1).

      Abstract (1559) HTML (0) PDF 39.15 K (519) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:More and more distributed generations (DGs) such as solar, wind, and energy storage, etc, inject into the power grid mainly through the power electronics equipments. Large-scale power electronic equipments connected to the grid bring new challenges for traditional power quality. Power quality analysis theory and control technology for smart grid will provide the comprehensive and systematic solutions and approaches in the application of DGs. This special issue is dedicated to reflecting the latest progress and technologies in power quality. The first article reviews an overview of power quality analysis, detection, and control technologies for smart grid, and show the trends and prospects of power quality control technology. The rest of other 14 articles included focus on the following 3 topics: 1) Power quality analysis, detection and estimation; 2) Active control of power quality; 3) Passive control of power quality. In summary, these 15 papers are well organized to address various challenging and solution issues in power quality. This issue is dedicated to address an introduction of power quality analysis and control methods for smart grid mainly including microgrid, distributed power station, and DGs.

    • Overview of power quality analysis and control technology for smart grid

      2016, 4(1):1-9. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-016-0185-8

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      Abstract:With the wide application of non-linear loads and the large-scale access of distributed energy generations based on power electronics equipments, power quality problems in the distribution network are increasingly serious with new characteristics. Further in-depth research is of great significance in theory and practice. This paper provides an overview of power quality analysis, compensators, and control technologies under the new situation of smart grid. It focuses on the topologies and control methods for power quality conditioners, especially new characteristics of power quality and applicable control technologies in microgrids and distributed power plants. Finally, trends and prospects of power quality control technology are introduced, which is important to achieve security and efficient operation of the smart grid.

    • Harmonic influence analysis of unified power flow controller based on modular multilevel converter

      2016, 4(1):10-18. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-015-0175-2

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      Abstract:The unified power flow controller (UPFC) based on modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the most creative flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) device. In theory, the output voltage of the series MMC in MMC-UPFC can be regulated from 0 to the rated value. However, there would be relatively large harmonics in the output voltage if the voltage modulation ratio is small. In order to analyze the influence of MMC-UPFC on the harmonics of the power grid, the theoretical calculation method and spectra of the output voltage harmonics of MMC are presented. Subsequently, the calculation formulas of the harmonics in the power grid with UPFC are proposed. Based on it, the influence of UPFC on the grid voltage harmonics is evaluated, when MMC-UPFC is operated with different submodular numbers and voltage modular ratios. Eventually, the proposed analysis method is validated using digital simulation. The study results would provide guideline for the design and operation of MMC-UPFC project.

    • Hilbert-Huang transform with adaptive waveform matching extension and its application in power quality disturbance detection for microgrid

      2016, 4(1):19-27. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-016-0188-5

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      Abstract:With the significant improvement of microgrid technology, microgrid has gained large-scale application. However, the existence of intermittent distributed generations, nonlinear loads and various electrical and electronic devices causes power quality problem in microgrid, especially in islanding mode. An accurate and fast disturbance detection method which is the premise of power quality control is necessary. Aiming at the end effect and the mode mixing of original Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), an improved HHT with adaptive waveform matching extension is proposed in this paper. The innovative waveform matching extension method considers not only the depth of waveform, but also the rise time and fall time. Both simulations and field experiments have verified the correctness and validity of the improved HHT for power quality disturbance detection in microgrid.

    • Fault ride-through of renewable energy conversion systems during voltage recovery

      2016, 4(1):28-39. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-015-0177-0

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      Abstract:Asymmetrical voltage swells during recovery of a short-circuit fault lead to fluctuations in the dc-link voltage of a renewable energy conversion system (RECS), and may induce reversed power flow and even trip the RECS. This paper studies characteristics of both typical causes resulting in the practical asymmetrical voltage swell and the voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) during the fault recovery. As analyzed, the fault recovery process can be divided into two continuous periods in which different control strategies have to be applied. Also protective measures are necessary in the transient period of the process. Additionally, the asymmetrical high-voltage ride-through capability and the controllability criteria of the RECS are analyzed based on eliminating the fluctuations. Furthermore, an asymmetrical control scheme is proposed to maintain the controllability of the RECS and ride through the entire recovery process. As verified by the simulation, the scheme can promise the RECS to deal with the practical fault recovery period and mitigate the dc-link voltage fluctuations, which improves the reliability of the RECS and the power system.

    • Online voltage estimation and control for smart distribution networks

      2016, 4(1):40-46. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-016-0187-6

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      Abstract:The increasing deployment of Distributed Generation (DG) technologies introduces power quality challenges to the grid, in particular steady state voltage rise at the connection point for DG units. In most distribution networks, control and monitoring of grid parameters is missing, as well as system security is at risk. Smart grid technologies have the capability to realize the real-time measurements and on-load voltage controls. With the steady implementation of smart grid technologies throughout the existing distribution networks, the online voltage control can be achieved ensuring the power quality and voltage levels within the statutory limits. This study presents a methodology for the estimation of voltage profile in a smart distribution network with DG for the online voltage control, taking into account different line X/R ratios and laterals. This method is based on maximum and minimum voltage estimation by remote terminal units (RTUs) placed only at DG connected bus and at capacitor connected bus. Voltage regulation is carried out based on RTUs estimated values. This work is tested on two radial distribution networks with/without DGs and laterals. Comparative results for voltage magnitudes estimated with different methodology are presented. The reported simulation results show that the method presented is capable of estimating the voltage profile along the distribution network with DGs for the online voltage control, considering different line X/R ratios and laterals.

    • Harmonic analysis based on time domain mutual-multiplication window

      2016, 4(1):47-53. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-016-0190-y

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      Abstract:The signal spectral leakage and fence effect are prone to take place during the power harmonic analysis by fast fourier transform (FFT) under asynchronous sampling. The inhibiting ability of classical window functions is restricted by side-lobe behaviors. A new type window function called time domain mutual-multiplication window, is obtained by multiplication operation of several window functions. A novel approach of harmonic analysis is developed through analyzing performances of main-lobe and side-lobe of the new window. Simulation results show that the time domain mutual-multiplication window can significantly suppress frequency spectral leakage and improve the accuracy of harmonic parameter estimation.

    • Frequency-based control of islanded microgrid with renewable energy sources and energy storage

      2016, 4(1):54-62. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-015-0178-z

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      Abstract:When a microgrid is mainly supplied by renewable energy sources (RESs), the frequency deviations may deteriorate significantly the power quality delivered to the loads. This paper proposes a frequency-based control strategy, ensuring the frequency among the strict limits imposed by the Standard EN 50160. The frequency of the microgrid common AC bus is determined by the energy storage converter, implementing a proposed droop curve among the state of charge (SoC) of the battery and the frequency. Therefore, the information of the SoC becomes known to every distributed energy resource (DER) of the microgrid and determines the active power injection of the converter-interfaced DERs. The active power injection of the rotating generators remains unaffected, while any mismatch among the power generation and consumption is absorbed by the energy storage system. Finally, in case of a solid short-circuit within the microgrid, the energy storage system detects the severe voltage decrease and injects a large current in order to clear the fault by activating the protection device closer to the fault. The proposed control methodology is applied in a microgrid with PVs, wind generators and a battery, while its effectiveness is evaluated by detailed simulation tests.

    • Generalized coupling resonance modeling, analysis, and active damping of multi-parallel inverters in microgrid operating in grid-connected mode

      2016, 4(1):63-75. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-016-0184-9

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      Abstract:This paper firstly presents an equivalent coupling circuit modeling of multi-parallel inverters in microgrid operating in grid-connected mode. By using the model, the coupling resonance phenomena are explicitly investigated through the mathematical approach, and the intrinsic and extrinsic resonances exist widely in microgrid. Considering the inverter own reference current, other inverters reference current, and grid harmonic voltage, the distributions of resonance peaks with the growth in the number of inverters are obtained. Then, an active damping control parameter design method is proposed to attenuate coupling resonance, and the most salient feature is that the optimal range of the damping parameter can be easily located through an initiatively graphic method. Finally, simulations and experiments verify the validity of the proposed modeling and method.

    • Droop control method for load share and voltage regulation in high-voltage microgrids

      2016, 4(1):76-86. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-015-0176-1

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      Abstract:When the line impedance is considered in the microgrid, the accuracy of load sharing will decrease. In this paper, the impact of line impedance on the accuracy of load sharing is analyzed. A robust droop control for a high-voltage microgrid is proposed based on the signal detection on the high-voltage side of the coupling transformer. For a high-voltage microgrid, the equivalent impedance of coupling transformer connecting distributed generator with the grid is usually the dominate factor. Compared with the conventional droop control strategy, the proposed control method in this paper detects the feedback signal from the high-voltage side of the coupling transformer. The impact of line impedance on the load sharing accuracy can be mitigated significantly. The proposed droop control only changes the detection point of the feedback signal, thus it is easy to be implemented. The PSCAD/EMTDC simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed robust droop control concept in load sharing and voltage regulation with highly accuracy.

    • Abc-frame complex-coefficient filter and controller based current harmonic elimination strategy for three-phase grid connected inverter

      2016, 4(1):87-93. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-016-0189-4

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      Abstract:Current quality is one of the most important issues for operating three-phase grid-connected inverter in distributed generation systems. In practice, the grid current quality is degraded in case of non-ideal utility voltage. A new control strategy is proposed for the three-phase grid-connected inverter. Different from the traditional method, our proposal utilizes the unique abc-frame complex-coefficient filter and controller to achieve the balanced, sinusoidal grid current. The main feature of the proposed method is simple and easy to implement without any frame transformation. The theoretical analysis and experimental test are presented. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

    • Control strategy for microgrid under three-phase unbalance condition

      2016, 4(1):94-102. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-015-0182-3

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      Abstract:Microgrid (MG) is generally developed at utility terminal which contains lots of unbalanced loads and distributed generations (DGs). The interaction between MG and the unbalance loads or DGs will degrades the control performance of interfaced inverter in MG and dramatically leads to MG voltage unbalance. In this paper, a negative-sequence compensation based three-phase voltage unified correction strategy is proposed. While MG operates in islanded mode, a positive virtual impedance control is used to eliminate the negative voltage resulted from the negative-sequence current, and then a positive-sequence voltage control loop and negative-sequence control loop are used to improve the inverter control performance. While MG operates in grid-tied mode, the inverter operates as a negative-sequence current source to compensate the negative-sequence currents of loads to guarantee the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage balance. By using the proposed strategy, the voltage control performance of inverter can be improved; the MG power quality can be enhanced significantly. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    • Global synchronous discontinuous pulse width modulation method with fast calculation capability for distributed three-phase inverters

      2016, 4(1):103-112. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-015-0180-5

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      Abstract:When multiple distributed converters are integrated, the high frequency harmonics will randomly accumulate at the point of common coupling (PCC). This paper proposes a new fast global synchronous discontinuous pulse width modulation (GSDPWM) method of three-phase inverters to effectively attenuate the high frequency current harmonics at PCC. Firstly, the basic principle and the realization method of GSDPWM for three-phase inverters are explained, which can be employed for different modulation types. Then a fast calculation method, which can equally derive the minimized total harmonic distortion (THD) of total current, is proposed to release the calculation burden. Finally, MATLAB simulations and experimental results are presented to verify the performance of GSDPWM.

    • Voltage sag compensation strategy for unified power quality conditioner with simultaneous reactive power injection

      2016, 4(1):113-122. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-016-0183-x

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      Abstract:Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) holds the capability of solving power quality problems, especially shows good performance in the voltage sag compensation. In this paper, a compensation strategy based on simultaneous reactive power injection for UPQC (namely UPQC-SRI) is proposed to address the issue of voltage sag. The proposed UPQC-SRI determines the injection angle of compensation voltage with consideration of optimal configuration of UPQC current-carrying. Moreover, the compensation strategy also considers the current-carrying limit of UPQC, and then the zero active power injection region of UPQC-SRI (also called UPQC-SRI region) is obtained. Under the conditions which exceed the UPQC-SRI region, the limit value of shunt current is determined by this proposed strategy. Finally, the proposed strategy and the corresponding algorithm are verified under the PSCAD/EMTDC platform. The result indicates the proposed UPQC-SRI strategy in this paper can provide more persistent voltage sag compensation than the previous strategies for the sensitive load.

    • Optimal electromagnetic hybrid negative current compensation method for high-speed railway power supply system

      2016, 4(1):123-134. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-015-0179-y

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      Abstract:To achieve economical compensation for the huge-capacity negative sequence currents generated by high-speed railway load, an electromagnetic hybrid compensation system (EHCS) and control strategy is proposed. The EHCS is made up of a small-capacity railway static power conditioner (RPC) and a large-capacity magnetic static var compensator (MSVC). Compared with traditional compensation methods, the EHCS makes full use of the SVC’s advantages of economy and reliability and of RPC’s advantages of technical capability and flexibility. Based on the idea of injecting a negative sequence, the compensation principle of the EHCS is analyzed in detail. Then the minimum installation capacity of an EHCS is theoretically deduced. Furthermore, a constraint optimization compensation strategy that meets national standards, which reduces compensation capacity further, is proposed. An experimental platform based on a digital signal processor (DSP) and a programmable logic controller (PLC) is built to verify the analysis. Simulated and experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

    • Comprehensive comparison of delta- and wye-connected autotransformer applied to 12-pulse rectifier

      2016, 4(1):135-145. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-016-0186-7

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      Abstract:12-pulse rectifier is extensively used in high power rectification, and the delta-connected autotransformer and wye-connected autotransformer are its two most popular phase-shift transformers. This paper compares the 12-pulse rectifiers using the two transformers via calculating the input line current, load voltage, kVA ratings of the two autotransformer, kVA ratings of the auxiliary magnetic devices. From the viewpoint of power quality of AC mains and DC side, the two 12-pulse rectifiers are the same. The kVA rating of the IPR in the two 12-pulse rectifiers are equal, and the kVA rating of the ZSBT in the two 12-pulse rectifier are also equal to each other, under the same load power. However, the kVA of the delta-connected autotransformer is less than that of the wye-connected autotransformer under the same load power. Some experimental results are shown to validate the correctness of the theoretical analysis.