Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy

ISSN 2196-5625 CN 32-1884/TK

  • Volume 6,Issue 1,2018 Table of Contents
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    • >Review
    • State-of-the-art review on frequency response of wind power plants in power systems

      2018, 6(1):1-16. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0315-y

      Abstract (1522) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (0) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:With an increasing penetration of wind power in the modern electrical grid, the increasing replacement of large conventional synchronous generators by wind power plants will potentially result in deteriorated frequency regulation performance due to the reduced system inertia and primary frequency response. A series of challenging issues arise from the aspects of power system planning, operation, control and protection. Therefore, it is valuable to develop variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) equipped with frequency regulation capabilities that allow them to effectively participate in addressing severe frequency contingencies. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on frequency regulation methods for VSWTs. It fully describes the concepts, principles and control strategies of prevailing frequency controls of VSWTs, including future development trends. It concludes with a performance comparison of frequency regulation by the four main types of wind power plants.

    • >Regular Paper
    • Allocation of synchronous condensers for restoration of system short-circuit power

      2018, 6(1):17-26. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0346-4

      Abstract (1396) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (0) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Modern power systems, employing an increasing number of converter-based renewable energy sources (RES) and decreasing the usage of conventional power plants, are leading to lower levels of short-circuit power and rotational inertia. A solution to this is the employment of synchronous condensers in the grid, in order to provide sufficient short-circuit power. This results in the increase of the short-circuit ratio (SCR) at transmission system bus-bars serving as points of interconnection (POI) to renewable generation. Evaluation of the required capacity and grid-location of the synchronous condensers, is inherently a mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem, which could not be done on manual basis considering each type of machine and all bus-bars. This study therefore proposes a method of optimal allocation of synchronous condensers in a hypothetic future scenario of a transmission system fed by renewable generation. Total cost of synchronous condenser installations in the system is minimized and the SCRs at the POIs of central renewable power plants are strengthened. The method has potential for application on larger grids, aiding grid-integration of RES.

    • Impact analysis of human factors on power system operation reliability

      2018, 6(1):27-39. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-016-0231-6

      Abstract (927) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (0) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Along with the improvement of electrical equipment reliability, people’s unsafe behaviors and human errors have become one of main sources of risks in power systems. However, there is no comprehensive study on human factors and human reliability analysis in power systems. In allusion to this situation, this paper attempts to analyze the impact of human factors on power system reliability. First, this paper introduces current situation of human factors in power systems and the latest research progress in this field. Several analysis methods are proposed according to specified situations, and these methods are verified by some power system practical cases. On this base, this paper illustrates how human factors affect power system operation reliability from 2 typical aspects: imperfect maintenance caused by human errors, and impact of human factors on emergency dispatch operation and power system cascading failure. Finally, based on information decision and action in crew (IDAC), a novel dispatcher training evaluation simulation system (DTESS) is established, which can incorporate all influencing factors. Once fully developed, DTESS can be used to simulate dispatchers’ response when encountering an initial event, and improve power system dispatching reliability.

    • Optimal design of hybrid wind/photovoltaic electrolyzer for maximum hydrogen production using imperialist competitive algorithm

      2018, 6(1):40-49. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0293-0

      Abstract (1342) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (0) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The rising demand for high-density power storage systems such as hydrogen, combined with renewable power production systems, has led to the design of optimal power production and storage systems. In this study, a wind and photovoltaic (PV) hybrid electrolyzer system, which maximizes the hydrogen production for a diurnal operation of the system, is designed and simulated. The operation of the system is optimized using imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA). The objective of this optimization is to combine the PV array and wind turbine (WT) in a way that, for minimized average excess power generation, maximum hydrogen would be produced. Actual meteorological data of Miami is used for simulations. A framework of the advanced alkaline electrolyzer with the detailed electrochemical model is used. This optimal system comprises a PV module with a power of 7.9 kW and a WT module with a power of 11 kW. The rate of hydrogen production is 0.0192 mol/s; an average Faraday efficiency of 86.9 percent. The electrolyzer works with 53.7 percent of its nominal power. The availability of the wind for longer periods of time reflects the greater contribution of WT in comparison with PV towards the overall throughput of the system.

    • Design and analysis of bidirectional driven float-type wave power generation system

      2018, 6(1):50-60. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0289-9

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      Abstract:The dynamic model for a bidirectional driven float-type wave power generation system design is presented in this paper. The gravity, buoyancy and drag force acting on the wave energy converter (WEC) are all analyzed. The analytical expression of the torque applied on the rotor is given based on a linear model of the switched reluctance generator (SRG). The SRG usually rotates with low velocity in the WEC system. In this situation, current chopping control (CCC) is adopted with fixed turn-on angle and turn-off angle control mode to have a quick response for SRG. Further, in order to make the float keep in phase with the wave so as to improve the power generation efficiency, the reference current is dynamically adjusted according to the wave motion at all working stages. Then maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of system is achieved. A simulation model is developed in MATLAB for the bidirectional driven float-type wave power generation system with real wave statistical characteristics taken into account. Simulation results show that the WEC can output desired torque periodically with high efficiency and good adaptability. Therefore, the feasibility of applying a SRG in a WEC is also verified.

    • Flexible unbalanced control with peak current limitation for virtual synchronous generator under voltage sags

      2018, 6(1):61-72. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0295-y

      Abstract (949) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (0) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Virtual synchronous generator (VSG) is gridfriendly for integrating distributed generations (DGs) since it can emulate the operation mechanism of traditional synchronous generator (SG). However, the traditional VSG control strategy, which is mainly suitable for balanced voltage conditions, may lead to power oscillations, current unbalance and even overcurrent under unbalanced voltage sags. To overcome this difficulty, a flexible unbalanced control with peak current limitation for VSG under unbalanced operating conditions is proposed. Based on the basic VSG control algorithm, the control strategy integrates two novel control modules, which are current reference generator (CRG) and power reference generator (PRG). The proposed control strategy can flexibly meet different operation demands, which includes current balancing, constant active or reactive power. And the injected currents are kept within safety values for a better utilization of the VSG power capacity. Furthermore, the experimental platform is built. Experimental results demonstrate the validness and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

    • Meeting peak electricity demand through combinatorial reverse auctioning of renewable energy

      2018, 6(1):73-84. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0345-5

      Abstract (868) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (0) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The option of organizing E-auctions to purchase electricity required for anticipated peak load period is a new one for utility companies. To meet the extra demand load, we develop electricity combinatorial reverse auction (CRA) for the purpose of procuring power from diverse energy sources. In this new, smart electricity market, suppliers of different scales can participate, and homeowners may even take an active role. In our CRA, an item, which is subject to several trading constraints, denotes a time slot that has two conflicting attributes, electricity quantity and price. To secure electricity, we design our auction with two bidding rounds: round one is exclusively for variable energy, and round two allows storage and nonintermittent renewable energy to bid on the remaining items. Our electricity auction leads to a complex winner determination (WD) task that we represent as a resource procurement optimization problem. We solve this problem using multi-objective genetic algorithms in order to find the trade-off solution that best lowers the price and increases the quantity. This solution consists of multiple winning suppliers, their prices, quantities and schedules. We validate our WD approach based on large-scale simulated datasets. We first assess the time-efficiency of our WD method, and we then compare it to well-known heuristic and exact WD techniques. In order to gain an exact idea about the accuracy of WD, we implement two famous exact algorithms for our constrained combinatorial procurement problem.

    • A coordinated consistency voltage stability control method of active distribution grid

      2018, 6(1):85-94. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0294-z

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      Abstract:The presence of distributed generators (DGs) with high penetration poses new challenges in the management and operation of electrical grids. Due to the local character of DGs, they could in principle be used in emergency situations to prevent a voltage instability event of the grid. In this paper, a certain method is proposed to coordinate the operation of virtual power plant (VPP) and conventional voltage regulation device to improve the static voltage stability of distribution network with the multi-agent framework. The concept and the general framework of this coordinated control system is introduced, and the voltage instable nodes are determined based on the voltage instability indicator. The voltage coordinated control model of the distribution system is established accordingto the multi-agent consistency controltheory and the coordinated controllers for agents are designed by solving a problem with bilinear matrix inequality constraints. The suggested method is implemented on an IEEE 33 nodes test system and the simulation results show its efficiency and validity.

    • Multi-objective short-term scheduling of active distribution networks for benefit maximization of DisCos and DG owners considering demand response programs and energy storage system

      2018, 6(1):95-106. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0313-0

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      Abstract:This paper proposes a multi-objective benefit function for operation of active distribution systems considering demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). In the active distribution system, active network management (ANM) is applied so that the distribution system equipment is controlled in real-time status based on the real-time measurements of system parameters (voltages and currents). The multi-objective optimization problem is solved using e-constraint method, and a fuzzy satisfying approach has been employed to select the best compromise solution. Two different objective functions are considered as follows: benefit maximization of distribution company (DisCo); benefit maximization of distributed generation owner (DGO). To increase the benefits and efficient implementation of distributed generation (DG), DGO has installed battery as energy storage system (ESS) in parallel with DG unit. Consequently, DGO decides for the battery charging/discharging. DisCo has the ability to exchange energy with the upstream network and DGO. Also, DisCo focuses to study the effect of demand response program (DRP) on total benefit function and consequently its influence on the load profile has been discussed. This model is successfully applied to a 33-bus radial distribution network.

    • Optimal allocation of hybrid energy storage for microgrids based on multi-attribute utility theory

      2018, 6(1):107-117. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0310-3

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      Abstract:To satisfy the requirements of high energy density, high power density, quick response and long lifespan for energy storage systems (ESSs), hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) have been investigated for their complementary characteristics of ‘high energy density components’ and ‘high power density components’. To optimize HESS combinations, related indices such as annual cost, fluctuation smoothing ability as well as safety and environmental impact have to be evaluated. The multiattribute utility method investigated in this paper is aimed to draw an overall conclusion for HESS allocation optimization in microgrid. Building on multi-attribute utility theory, this method has significant advantages in solving the incommensurability and contradiction among multiple attributes. Instead of determining the weights of various attributes subjectively, when adopting the multi-attribute utility method, the characteristics of attributes and the relation among them can be investigated objectively. Also, the proper utility function and merging rules are identified to achieve the aggregate utility which can reflect comprehensive qualities of HESSs.

    • Water-filling algorithm based approach for management of responsive residential loads

      2018, 6(1):118-131. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0340-x

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      Abstract:Integration of large number of electric vehicles (EVs) with distribution networks is devastating for conventional power system devices such as transformers and power lines etc. This paper proposes a methodology for management of responsive household appliances management and EVs with water-filling algorithm. With the proposed scheme, the load profile of a transformer is retained below its rated capacity while minimally affecting the associated consumers. When the instantaneous demand at transformer increases beyond its capacity, the proposed methodology dynamically allocates demand curtailment limit (DCL) to each home served by transformer. The DCL allocation takes convenience factors, load profile and information of flexible appliances into account to assure the comfort of all the consumers. The proposed scheme is verified by modeling and simulating five houses and a distribution transformer. The smart appliances such as an HVAC, a water heater, a cloth dryer and an EV are also modeled for the study. Results show that the proposed scheme performs to reduce overloading effects of the transformer efficiently and assures comfort of the consumers at the same time.

    • A robust optimization method for energy management of CCHP microgrid

      2018, 6(1):132-144. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0290-3

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      Abstract:Energy management is facing new challenges due to the increasing supply and demand uncertainties, which is caused by the integration of variable generation resources, inaccurate load forecasts and non-linear efficiency curves. To meet these challenges, a robust optimization method incorporating piecewise linear thermal and electrical efficiency curve is proposed to accommodate the uncertainties of cooling, thermal and electrical load, as well as photovoltaic (PV) output power. Case study results demonstrate that the robust optimization model performs better than the deterministic optimization model in terms of the expected operation cost. The fluctuation of net electrical load has greater effect on the dispatching results of the combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) microgrid than the fluctuation of the cooling and thermal load. The day-ahead schedule is greatly affected by the uncertainty budget of the load demand. The economy of the optimal decision could be achieved by adjusting different uncertainty budget levels according to control the conservatism of the model.

    • Long-term forecasting of annual peak load considering effects of demand-side programs

      2018, 6(1):145-157. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0328-6

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      Abstract:The main purpose of this research paper is to investigate the long-term effects of the proposed demandside program, and its impact on annual peak load forecasting important for strategic network planning. The program comprises a particular set of demand-side measures aimed at reducing the annual peak load. The paper also presents the program simulations for the case study of the Electricity Distribution Company of Belgrade (EDB). According to the methodology used, the first step is to determine the available controllable load of the distribution utility/area under consideration. The controllable load is presumed constant over the analyzed time horizon, and the smart grid (SG) infrastructure available. The saturation of positive effects during intense program application is also taken into account. Technical and economic input data are taken from the real projects. The conducted calculations indicate that demand-side programs can bring about the same results as the energy storage in the grids with a strong impact of distributed generation from variable renewable sources (V-RES). In conclusion, the proposed demand-side program is a good alternative to building new power facilities, which can postpone investment costs for a considerable period of time.

    • Interaction analysis between induction motor loads and STATCOM in weak grid using induction machine model

      2018, 6(1):158-167. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0316-x

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      Abstract:Static synchronous compensators (STATCOM) can be used as a reactive power compensation for induction motor (IM) loads due to its effective control and good compensation. Terminal voltage control (TVC) in a STATCOM has a great influence on voltage dynamics which is a significant concern in a system with many IM loads. This paper investigates the interaction between IM loads and TVC in a STATCOM under weak grid conditions from the viewpoint of active and reactive power flow. A corresponding induction machine model is proposed, based on which the interaction mechanism between IM loads and TVC in a STATCOM can be intuitively understood. It is shown that the negative damping component provided by TVC in a STATCOM can lead to system oscillation instability. Grid strength and the inertia constant of the induction machine affect the extent of such interaction. Time-domain simulation results of IM loads connected to an infinite system through a long transmission line, with STATCOM compensation implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, validate the correctness of the analyses.

    • Control scheme of hexagonal modular multilevel direct converter for offshore wind power integration via fractional frequency transmission system

      2018, 6(1):168-180. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0311-2

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      Abstract:A fractional frequency transmission system (FFTS) is a promising solution to offshore wind power integration, for which the hexagonal modular multilevel converter (Hexverter) is an attractive choice for power conversion. The Hexverter has recently been proposed to directly connect two three-phase systems of different frequencies and voltage amplitudes, with only six branches in the FFTS in that case. This paper examines for the first time the control scheme of the Hexverter when applied to offshore wind power integration via a FFTS. Firstly, the frequency-decoupled mathematical model of the Hexverter is deduced by introducing the double dq transformation. Then the branch energy of the Hexverter is analyzed in detail and the reactive power constraint equation is obtained. The corresponding control scheme is thoroughly discussed, including the inner loop current control, the outer loop voltage control in both grid-connected mode and passive mode, and a novel optimization method to minimize the circulating current in the Hexverter. Finally, a simulation model of offshore wind power integration via a 4-terminal FFTS based on the Hexverter is built in MATALB/Simulink to verify the feasibility of Hexverter and the effectiveness of the control scheme proposed in this paper.

    • Subsynchronous resonance and its mitigation for power system with unified power flow controller

      2018, 6(1):181-189. DOI: 10.1007/s40565-017-0283-2

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      Abstract:Control strategy of unified power flow controller (UPFC) utilizing dq decoupling control is deduced in this paper, which can closely follow the control orders of the active and reactive power. The subsynchronous resonance (SSR) characteristics of a series compensated system equipped with UPFC are studied, and the results reveal that SSR characteristics of the system may vary significantly with UPFC in service or not. Consequently, supplementary subsynchronous damping controller (SSDC) for UPFC is proposed and investigated, and the effectiveness of the proposed SSDC is verified by damping torque analysis and time domain simulations.