Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy

ISSN 2196-5625 CN 32-1884/TK

  • Volume 7,Issue 1,2019 Table of Contents
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    • >Review
    • Transition towards higher penetration of renewables: an overview of interlinked technical, environmental and socio-economic challenges

      2019, 7(1):1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0438-9

      Abstract (1474) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (0) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Investment for renewables has been growing rapidly since the beginning of the new century, and the momentum is expected to sustain in order to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic climate change. Transition towards higher renewable penetration in the power industry will not only confront technical challenges, but also face socio-economic obstacles. The connected between environment and energy systems are also tightened under elevated penetration of renewables. This paper will provide an overview of some important challenges related to technical, environmental and socio-economic aspects at elevated renewable penetration. An integrated analytical framework for interlinked technical, environmental and socio-economic systems will be presented at the end.

    • Frequency control of future power systems: reviewing and evaluating challenges and new control methods

      2019, 7(1):9-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0441-1

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      Abstract:Integration of more renewable energy resources introduces a challenge in frequency control of future power systems. This paper reviews and evaluates the possible challenges and the new control methods of frequency in future power systems. Different types of loads and distributed energy resources (DERs) are reviewed. A model representation of a population of the water heater devices for the demand side frequency response is considered. A model representation of a population of battery energy storage system (BESS)-based DERs such as smart electric vehicles (EVs) charging, large-scale BESSs, and residential and non-residential BESSs, are highlighted. The simplified Great Britain power system and the 14-machine South-East Australian power system were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methods in controlling power system frequency following a disturbance. These new methods are effective in recovering the fallen frequency response and present a great potential in controlling the frequency in future power systems.

    • >Regular Paper
    • Real-time transient stability assessment in power system based on improved SVM

      2019, 7(1):26-37. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0453-x

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      Abstract:Due to the strict requirements of extremely high accuracy and fast computational speed, real-time transient stability assessment (TSA) has always been a tough problem in power system analysis. Fortunately, the development of artificial intelligence and big data technologies provide the new prospective methods to this issue, and there have been some successful trials on using intelligent method, such as support vector machine (SVM) method. However, the traditional SVM method cannot avoid false classification, and the interpretability of the results needs to be strengthened and clear. This paper proposes a new strategy to solve the shortcomings of traditional SVM, which can improve the interpretability of results, and avoid the problem of false alarms and missed alarms. In this strategy, two improved SVMs, which are called aggressive support vector machine (ASVM) and conservative support vector machine (CSVM), are proposed to improve the accuracy of the classification. And two improved SVMs can ensure the stability or instability of the power system in most cases. For the small amount of cases with undetermined stability, a new concept of grey region (GR) is built to measure the uncertainty of the results, and GR can assessment the instable probability of the power system. Cases studies on IEEE 39-bus system and realistic provincial power grid illustrate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed strategy.

    • Online coherence identification using dynamic time warping for controlled islanding

      2019, 7(1):38-54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0443-z

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      Abstract:Controlled islanding is considered to be the last countermeasure to prevent a system-wide blackout in case of cascading failures. It splits the system into self-sustained islands to maintain transient stability at the expense of possible loss of load. Generator coherence identification is critical to controlled islanding scheme as it helps identify the optimal cut-set to maintain the transient stability of the post-islanding systems. This paper presents a novel approach for online generator coherency identification using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data and dynamic time warping (DTW). Results from the coherence identi- fication are used to further cluster non-generator buses using spectral clustering with the objective of minimizing power flow disruptions. The proposed approach is validated and compared to existing methods on the IEEE 39-bus system and WECC 179-bus system, through which its advantages are demonstrated.

    • Modelling, parameter estimation and assessment of partial shading conditions of photovoltaic modules

      2019, 7(1):55-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0454-9

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      Abstract:This paper proposes a method for assessing the effect that different features of partial shading conditions (PSC) may have on the operation of a photovoltaic (PV) system. Simulation studies, based on an experimentally validated model of a PV system, are used to assess the influence of PSC. Three classifications of PSC are defined based on the timescale of their influence on the irradiance experienced by the PV module and the relative location of the voltage at which the global maximum power point occurs is assessed. Sample case studies are presented to illustrate the application of the proposed PSC assessment method. The results have implications for the design of future maximum power point tracking methods.

    • Cloud-based parallel power flow calculation using resilient distributed datasets and directed acyclic graph

      2019, 7(1):65-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0406-4

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      Abstract:With the integration of distributed generation and the construction of cross-regional long-distance power grids, power systems become larger and more complex. They require faster computing speed and better scalability for power flow calculations to support unit dispatch. Based on the analysis of a variety of parallelization methods, this paper deploys the large-scale power flow calculation task on a cloud computing platform using resilient distributed datasets (RDDs). It optimizes a directed acyclic graph that is stored in the RDDs to solve the low performance problem of the MapReduce model. This paper constructs and simulates a power flow calculation on a large-scale power system based on standard IEEE test data. Experiments are conducted on Spark cluster which is deployed as a cloud computing platform. They show that the advantages of this method are not obvious at small scale, but the performance is superior to the stand-alone model and the MapReduce model for large-scale calculations. In addition, running time will be reduced when adding cluster nodes. Although not tested under practical conditions, this paper provides a new way of thinking about parallel power flow calculations in large-scale power systems.

    • Power systems wide-area voltage stability assessment considering dissimilar load variations and credible contingencies

      2019, 7(1):78-87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0420-6

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      Abstract:This paper reveals that the existing techniques have some deficiencies in the proper estimation of voltage stability margin (VSM) when applied to a power system with different load change scenarios. The problem gets worse when credible contingencies occur. This paper proposes a real-time wide-area approach to estimate VSM of power systems with different possible load change scenarios under normal and contingency operating conditions. The new method is based on an artificial neural network (ANN) whose inputs are bus voltage phasors captured by phasor measurement units (PMUs) and rates of change of active power loads. A new input feature is also accommodated to overcome the inability of trained ANN in prediction of VSM under N-1 and N-2 contingencies. With a new algorithm, the number of contingencies is reduced for the effective training of ANN. Robustness of the proposed technique is assured through adding a random noise to input variables. To deal with systems with a limited number of PMUs, a search algorithm is accomplished to identify the optimal placement of PMUs. The proposed method is examined on the IEEE 6-bus and the New England 39-bus test system. Results show that the VSM could be predicted with less than 1% error.

    • A two-level hierarchical discrete-device control method for power networks with integrated wind farms

      2019, 7(1):88-98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0417-1

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      Abstract:Power systems depend on discrete devices, such as shunt capacitors/reactors and on-load tap changers, for their long-term reliability. In transmission systems that contain large wind farms, we must take into account the uncertainties in wind power generation when deciding when to operate these devices. In this paper, we describe a method to schedule the operation of these devices over the course of the following day. These schedules are designed to minimize wind-power generation curtailment, bus voltage violations, and dynamic reactive-power deviations, even under the worst possible conditions. Daily voltagecontrol decisions are initiated every 15 min using a dynamic optimization algorithm that predicts the state of the system over the next 4-hour period. For this, forecasts updated in real-time are employed, because they are more precise than forecasts for the day ahead. Day-ahead schedules are calculated using a two-stage robust mixedinteger optimization algorithm. The proposed control strategies were tested on a Chinese power network with wind power sources; the control performance was also validated numerically.

    • Mitigation of power system forced oscillations based on unified power flow controller

      2019, 7(1):99-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0405-5

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      Abstract:Forced oscillations (FOs), or low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) caused by periodic, continuous, small power disturbances, threaten the security and stability of power systems. Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices can effectively mitigate LFOs via stability control. We propose a novel method that mitigates FOs by shifting the resonant frequency. Based on the features of the linearized swing equation of a generator, a resonant frequency shift can be achieved by controlling the synchronous torque coefficient using a unified power flow controller (UPFC). Because of the resonance mechanism, the steady-state response of an FO can be effectively mitigated when the resonant frequency changes from the original one, which was close to the disturbance frequency. The principle is that a change in resonant frequency affects the resonance condition. Simulations are conducted in a single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) system, and the simulation results verify that the method is straightforward to implement and can significantly mitigate FOs. The controller robustness when the resonant frequency is not accurately estimated is also analyzed in the simulations.

    • Selecting and optimal sizing of hybridized energy storage systems for tidal energy integration into power grid

      2019, 7(1):113-122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0442-0

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      Abstract:The high penetration of renewable energy systems with fluctuating power generation into the electric grids affects considerably the electric power quality and supply reliability. Therefore, energy storage resources are used to deal with the challenges imposed by power variability and demand-supply balance. The main focus of this paper is to investigate the appropriate storage technologies and the capacity needed for a successful tidal power integration. Therefore, a simplified sizing method, integrating an energy management strategy, is proposed. This method allows the selection of the adequate storage technologies and determines the required least-cost storage capacity by considering their technological limits associated with different power dynamics. The optimal solutions given by the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm are presented and analyzed.

    • Penetrating power characteristics of half-wavelength AC transmission in point-to-grid system

      2019, 7(1):123-130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0401-9

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      Abstract:With the concept of global energy interconnection being proposed, half-wavelength alternating current transmission (HWACT) technology becomes of more interest. HWACT lines can be adopted to establish a pointto-grid system, in which the penetrating power (PP) is produced between receiving terminals, having a significant effect on the power flow distribution. In order to investigate this phenomenon, the PP characteristics of the HWACT system are researched in this paper. First, the mathematical relationship between the transmission power and terminal bus voltages of a single HWACT line is derived using the equations of a distributed parameter model. The research indicates that the relationship between power and terminal voltages shows ‘‘reverse characteristics’’ opposite to those of regular short transmission lines. Then, the concept and definition of PP in a point-to-grid system with two receiving terminals are proposed, and the corresponding relationship between PP and the terminal bus voltages is derived. Simulations are carried out to validate the theory under different conditions, so that the accuracy and adaptiveness of the theoretical analysis can be proved. In addition, the results demonstrate that selecting the location for a HWACT system has demanding requirements in order to control the value of PP.

    • Failure probability estimation of overhead transmission lines considering the spatial and temporal variation in severe weather

      2019, 7(1):131-138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-017-0370-4

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      Abstract:Estimation for weather-related failure probability of overhead transmission lines is essential in the reliability assessment of a power system. This paper analyzes the outage and weather data of 110 kV overhead transmission lines in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China during 2011–2014. The result reveals obvious uneven distributions of outage events for time and space due to the spatial and temporal variation of severe weather. Based on the results, an estimation method is proposed in this paper. Split and aggregation is used to smooth the outage and weather data. The poisson model is adopted in our method to investigate the statistic characteristics of transmission line outage events. Regression analysis is applied to obtain the correlation between the weather intensity and history failure rate. Furthermore the method proposed is validated against the empirical outage data.

    • Interval optimal power flow applied to distribution networks under uncertainty of loads and renewable resources

      2019, 7(1):139-150. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0462-9

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      Abstract:Optimal power flow (OPF) has been used for energy dispatching in active distribution networks. To satisfy constraints fully and achieve strict operational bounds under the uncertainties from loads and sources, this paper derives an interval optimal power flow (I-OPF) method employing affine arithmetic and interval Taylor expansion. An enhanced I-OPF method based on successive linear approximation and second-order cone programming is developed to improve solution accuracy. The proposed methods are benchmarked against Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and stochastic OPF. Tests on a modified IEEE 33-bus system and a real 113-bus distribution network validate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed methods.

    • Personalized real time pricing for efficient and fair demand response in energy cooperatives and highly competitive flexibility markets

      2019, 7(1):151-162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0426-0

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      Abstract:This paper contributes to the well-known challenge of active user participation in demand side management (DSM). In DSM, there is a need for modern pricing mechanisms that will be able to effectively incentivize selfishly behaving users in modifying their energy consumption pattern towards system-level goals like energy efficiency. Three generally desired properties of DSM algorithms are: user satisfaction, energy cost minimization and fairness. In this paper, a personalized–real time pricing (P-RTP) mechanism design framework is proposed that fairly allocates the energy cost reduction only to the users that provoke it. Thus, the proposed mechanism achieves significant reduction of the energy cost without sacrificing at all the welfare (user satisfaction) of electricity consumers. The business model that the proposed mechanism envisages is highly competitive flexibility market environments as well as energy cooperatives.

    • An efficient stochastic algorithm for mid-term scheduling of cascaded hydro systems

      2019, 7(1):163-173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0412-6

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      Abstract:Due to the stochastic and correlated attributes of natural inflows, the mid-term generation scheduling problem for cascaded hydro systems is a very challenging issue. This paper proposes a novel stochastic optimization algorithm using Latin hypercube sampling and Cholesky decomposition combined with scenario bundling and sensitivity analysis (LC-SB-SA) to address this problem. To deal with the uncertainty of natural inflows, Latin hypercube sampling is implemented to provide an adequate number of sampling scenarios efficiently, and Cholesky decomposition is introduced to describe the correlated natural inflows among cascaded stations. In addition, to overcome the difficulties in solving the objectives of all the scenarios, scenario bundling and sensitivity analysis algorithms are developed to improve the computational effi- ciency. Simulation results from both two-station and tenstation systems indicate that the proposed method has the merits in accuracy as well as calculation speed for the midterm cascaded hydro generation scheduling. The consideration of natural inflow correlation makes the formulated problem more realistic.

    • Improved virtual synchronous control for grid-connected VSCs under grid voltage unbalanced conditions

      2019, 7(1):174-185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0388-2

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      Abstract:This paper presents an improved virtual synchronous control (VSynC) for the grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) so as to continuously operate under the grid voltage with steady unbalance. The improved VSynC introduces the negative sequence power controls on basis of conventional VSynC. The improved VSynC is capable of regulating the negative sequence internal voltage to reduce the negative-sequence injected currents and oscillated powers of the VSC aroused by the negative-sequence grid voltage. Three alternative local control objectives for the VSC itself under steady state unbalanced grid conditions and their corresponding power references are deduced and computed. Simulated and experimental results are presented to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed improved VSynC to enhance the continuous operation performance of VSynC-based VSCs during grid voltage steady-state unbalance.

    • Constant frequency operation of parallel resonant converter for constant-current constant-voltage battery charger applications

      2019, 7(1):186-199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0403-7

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      Abstract:This paper proposes a design and control approach to parallel resonant converter (PRC) based battery chargers. The proposed approach is particularly suitable for the constant-current constant-voltage (CC-CV) charging method, which is the most commonly utilized one. Since the PRC is operated at two different frequencies for each CC and CV charging modes, this approach eliminates the need for complicated control techniques such as the frequency-control and phase-shift-control. The proposed method not only simplifies the design and implementation processes of the converter unit but also simplifies the design of output filter configuration and decreases the number of the required components for the control of the charger. The proposed method is confirmed by two experimental setups. The results show that the designed charger circuit ensured a very stable constant current in CC charging phase, where the charging current is fixed to 1.75 A. Although a voltage increase in CV phase is observed, the charger circuit is able to decrease the charging current to 0.5 A in CV phase, as depicted in battery data-sheet. The efficiency of the charger is figured out to be in the range of 86%-93% in the first setup, while it is found to be in the range of 78%-88% in the second setup, where a high frequency transformer is employed.

    • Stability analysis of high power factor Vienna rectifier based on reduced order model in d-q domain

      2019, 7(1):200-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0463-8

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      Abstract:For a DC distributed power system, system stability can be predicted by dividing it into source and load subsystems, and then applying the Nyquist criterion to the impedance interaction between the source and load model. However, the generalized Nyquist criterion is extremely complicated and cannot directly reveal effective control strategies to reduce interaction problems of cascade threephase AC systems. Specifically, as a current force rectifier, this characteristic makes it difficult to judge the stability of a cascade three-phase Vienna AC system. To deal with the aforementioned problems, a simplified small signal stability criterion is presented for an AC distributed power system. Based on the criterion, the small signal model and impedance based on the reduced order model in the dq domain are studied theoretically. For the instability issue, an impedance regulator design method is presented. The correctness of the simplified stability criterion and the effectiveness of the proposed impedance regulator method are validated by extensive simulation and experiment.