Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy

ISSN 2196-5625 CN 32-1884/TK

  • Volume 9,Issue 4,2021 Table of Contents
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    • >Special Section on Power Systems with Increasing Renewable Penetration: Market, Operations, Planning and Regulation
    • Guest Editorial: Power Systems with Increasing Renewable Penetration: Market, Operations, Planning and Regulation

      2021, 9(4):1-2.

      Abstract (750) HTML (3) PDF 251.55 K (152) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:

    • A Fuzzy Hierarchical Strategy for Improving Frequency Regulation of Battery Energy Storage System

      2021, 9(4):689-698. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000895

      Abstract (675) HTML (2) PDF 1.82 M (171) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) can provide instantaneous support for frequency regulation (FR) because of their fast response characteristics. However, purely pursuing a better FR effect calls for continually rapid cycles of BESSs, which shortens their lifetime and deteriorates the operational economy. To coordinate the lifespan savings and the FR effect, this paper presents a control strategy for the FR of BESSs based on fuzzy logic and hierarchical controllers. The fuzzy logic controller improves the effect of FR by adjusting the charging/discharging power of the BESS with a higher response speed and precision based on the area control error (ACE) signal and the change rate of ACE in a non-linear way. Hierarchical controllers effectively reduce the life loss by optimizing the depth of discharge, which ensures that the state of charge (SOC) of BESS is always in the optimal operating range, and the total FR cost is the lowest at this time. The proposed method can achieve the optimal balance between ACE reduction and operational economy of BESS. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified in a two-area power system.

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    • Optimal Operation of an Integrated Electricity-heat Energy System Considering Flexible Resources Dispatch for Renewable Integration

      2021, 9(4):699-710. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000917

      Abstract (695) HTML (3) PDF 1.20 M (155) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Large fluctuations may occur on the energy supply and the load sides when large-scale renewable energies are integrated, leading to great challenges in power systems. The renewable power curtailment is especially numerous in the integrated electricity-heat energy system (IEHES) on account of electricity-heat coupling. The flexible resources (FRs) on both the energy supply and load sides are introduced into the optimal dispatch of the IEHES and further modeled to alleviate the renewable fluctuations in this paper. On the energy supply side, three kinds of FRs based on electricity-heat coordination are modeled and discussed. On the load side, the shiftable electricity demand resource is characterized. On this basis, the solution for FRs participating in IEHES dispatch is given, with goals of maximizing the renewable penetration ratio and lowering operation costs. Two scenarios are performed, and the results indicate that the proposed optimal dispatch strategy can effectively reduce the renewable energy curtailment and improve the flexibility of the IEHES. The contribution degrees of different FRs for renewable integration are also explored.

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    • Optimal Decomposition of Stochastic Dispatch Schedule for Renewable Energy Cluster

      2021, 9(4):711-719. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000620

      Abstract (581) HTML (4) PDF 973.02 K (156) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The correlated renewable energy farms are usually aggregated as a cluster in economic dispatch to relieve computational burden. This strategy can also achieve better performance since the precision of predicting the power generation of a cluster can be higher than those of individual farms. This paper proposes an optimal decomposition method to allocate dispatch schedules among renewable energy farms (REFs) in the cluster under existing stochastic optimization framework. The proposed model takes advantage of probabilistic characteristics of renewable generation to minimize the curtailment and ensure the feasibility of dispatch schedule of the clusters. Approximated tractable formulation and efficient solution method are the proposed to solve the proposed model. Numerical tests show that the proposed method achieves the optimal decomposition of dispatch schedule among REFs and facilitates the utilization of renewable generation.

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    • Day-ahead Risk-constrained Stochastic Scheduling of Multi-energy System

      2021, 9(4):720-733. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000375

      Abstract (607) HTML (2) PDF 1.38 M (154) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:As an increasing penetration of renewable energy sources can potentially impact voltage profile and compromise system security, the security continues to be the most critical concern in power system operations. A risk-constrained stochastic scheduling model is proposed to leverage the latent scheduling capacity of a multi-energy system to seek an economic operation solution while maintaining system operation risk level against uncertain renewable generation. Overvoltage risk constraints, as compared to the straightforward voltage boundary limits, are incorporated into the stochastic scheduling model to guarantee the operation security and economics. Linearized AC power flow model is applied to enable overvoltage risk assessment within the coordinated scheduling model. The proposed stochastic scheduling model is tackled via the improved progressive hedging approach with an enhanced relax-round-polish process, which overcomes the convergence issues of the traditional progressive hedging in handling nonconvex stochastic scheduling model with binary variables on both stages. Numerical simulation results of IEEE 30-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system illustrate the efficacy of the proposed model in ensuring voltage security and improving economic operation of systems.

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    • Locational Marginal Pricing Mechanism for Uncertainty Management Based on Improved Multi-ellipsoidal Uncertainty Set

      2021, 9(4):734-750. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000824

      Abstract (594) HTML (4) PDF 1.89 M (169) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The large-scale integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) brings huge challenges to the power system. A cost-effective reserve deployment and uncertainty pricing mechanism are critical to deal with the uncertainty and variability of RES. To this end, this paper proposes a novel locational marginal pricing mechanism in day-ahead market for managing uncertainties from RES. Firstly, an improved multi-ellipsoidal uncertainty set (IMEUS) considering the temporal correlation and conditional correlation of wind power forecasting is formulated to better capture the uncertainty of wind power. The dimension of each ellipsoidal subset is optimized based on a comprehensive evaluation index to reduce the invalid region without large loss of modeling accuracy, so as to reduce the conservatism. Then, an IMEUS-based robust unit commitment (RUC) model and a robust economic dispatch (RED) model are established for the day-ahead market clearing. Both the reserve cost and ramping constraints are considered in the overall dispatch process. Furthermore, based on the Langrangian function of the RED model, a new locational marginal pricing mechanism is developed. The uncertainty locational marginal price (ULMP) is introduced to charge the RES for its uncertainties and reward the generators who provide reserve to mitigate uncertainties. The new pricing mechanism can provide effective price signals to incentivize the uncertainty management in the day-ahead market. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism is verified via numerous simulations on the PJM 5-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system.

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    • Coordinated Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Wind Farm for Frequency Regulation

      2021, 9(4):751-759. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2021.000060

      Abstract (664) HTML (4) PDF 1.35 M (177) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:As a dispatchable renewable energy technology, the fast ramping capability of concentrating solar power (CSP) can be exploited to provide regulation services. However, frequent adjustments in real-time power output of CSP, which stems out of strategies offered by ill-designed market, may affect the durability and the profitability of the CSP plant, especially when it provides fast regulation services in a real-time operation. We propose the coordinated operation of a CSP plant and wind farm by exploiting their complementarity in accuracy and durability for providing frequency regulation. The coordinated operation can respond to regulation signals effectively and achieve a better performance than conventional thermal generators. We further propose an optimal bidding strategy for both energy and frequency regulations for the coordinated operation of CSP plant and wind farm in day-ahead market (DAM). The validity of the coordinated operation model and the proposed bidding strategy is verified by a case study including a base case and sensitivity analyses on several impacting factors in electricity markets.

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    • Frequency-constrained Co-planning of Generation and Energy Storage with High-penetration Renewable Energy

      2021, 9(4):760-775. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000743

      Abstract (605) HTML (2) PDF 1.46 M (171) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Large-scale renewable energy integration decreases the system inertia and restricts frequency regulation. To maintain the frequency stability, allocating adequate frequency-support sources poses a critical challenge to planners. In this context, we propose a frequency-constrained coordination planning model of thermal units, wind farms, and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) to provide satisfactory frequency supports. Firstly, a modified multi-machine system frequency response (MSFR) model that accounts for the dynamic responses from both synchronous generators and grid-connected inverters is constructed with preset power-headroom. Secondly, the rate-of-change-of-frequency (ROCOF) and frequency response power are deduced to construct frequency constraints. A data-driven piecewise linearization (DDPWL) method based on hyperplane fitting and data classification is applied to linearize the highly nonlinear frequency response power. Thirdly, frequency constraints are inserted into our planning model, while the unit commitment based on the coordinated operation of the thermal-hydro-wind-BESS hybrid system is implemented. At last, the proposed model is applied to the IEEE RTS-79 test system. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our co-planning model to keep the frequency stability.

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    • Equilibria in Interdependent Natural-gas and Electric Power Markets: an Analytical Approach

      2021, 9(4):776-787. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000898

      Abstract (526) HTML (4) PDF 1.09 M (147) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Natural-gas and electric power systems and their corresponding markets have evolved over time independently. However, both systems are increasingly interdependent since combined cycle gas turbines that use natural gas to produce electricity increasingly couple them together. Therefore, suitable analysis techniques are most needed to comprehend the consequences on market outcomes of an increasing level of integration of both systems. There is a vast literature on integrated natural-gas and electric power markets assuming that the two markets are operated centrally by a single operator. This assumption is often untrue in the real world, which necessitates developing models for these interdependent yet independent markets. In this vein, this paper addresses the gap in the literature and provides analytical Nash-Cournot equilibrium models to represent the joint operation of natural-gas and electric power markets with the assumption that the market participants in each market make their own decisions independently seeking the maximum profits, as often is the case in the real world. We develop an analytical equilibrium model and apply the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) approach to obtain Nash-Cournot equilibria for the interdependent natural-gas and electric power markets. We use a double-duopoly case to study the interaction of both markets and to derive insightful analytical results. Moreover, we derive closed-form analytical expressions for spot-market equilibria in both natural-gas and electric power markets, which are relevant and of practical significance for decision makers. We complement the double-duopoly study with a detailed sensitivity analysis.

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    • Two-step Optimal Allocation of Stationary and Mobile Energy Storage Systems in Resilient Distribution Networks

      2021, 9(4):788-799. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000910

      Abstract (593) HTML (4) PDF 1.21 M (160) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Energy storage systems (ESSs) are acknowledged to be a promising option to cope with issues in high penetration of renewable energy and guarantee a highly reliable power supply. In this paper, a two-step optimal allocation model is proposed to obtain the optimal allocation (location and size) of stationary ESSs (SESSs) and mobile ESSs (MESSs) in the resilient distribution networks (DNs). In the first step, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problem is formulated to obtain the preselected location of ESSs with consideration of different scenarios under normal operation conditions. In the second step, a two-stage robust optimization model is established to get the optimal allocation results of ESSs under failure operation conditions which are solved by column-and-constraint generation (C&CG) algorithm. A hybrid ESS allocation strategy based on the subjective and objective weight analysis is proposed to give the final allocation scheme of SESSs and MESSs. Finally, the proposed two-step optimal allocation model is demonstrated on a modified IEEE 33-bus system to show its effectiveness and merits.

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    • Potential Assessment of Spatial Correlation to Improve Maximum Distributed PV Hosting Capacity of Distribution Networks

      2021, 9(4):800-810. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000886

      Abstract (602) HTML (4) PDF 4.39 M (162) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Successful distributed photovoltaic (PV) planning now requires a hosting capacity assessment process that accounts for an appropriate model of PV output and its uncertainty. This paper explores how the PV hosting capacity of distribution networks can be increased by means of spatial correlation among distributed PV outputs. To achieve this, a novel PV hosting capacity assessment method is proposed to account for arbitrary geographically dispersed distributed PVs. In this method, the empirical relation between the spatial correlation coefficient and distance is fitted by historical data in one place and then applied to model the joint probability distribution of PV outputs at a neighboring location. To derive the PV hosting capacity at candidate locations, a stochastic PV hosting capacity assessment model that aims to maximize the PV hosting capacity under thermal and voltage constraints is proposed. Benders decomposition algorithm is also employed to reduce the computational cost associated with the numerous sampling scenarios. Finally, a rural 59-bus distribution network in Suzhou, China, is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed PV hosting capacity assessment methodology and the significant benefits obtained by increasing geographical distance.

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    • A Reliability Model for Integrated Energy System Considering Multi-energy Correlation

      2021, 9(4):811-825. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000301

      Abstract (544) HTML (4) PDF 1.32 M (156) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:An integrated energy system (IES) is a regional energy system incorporating distributed multi-energy systems to serve various energy demands such as electricity, heating, cooling, and gas. The reliability analysis plays a key role in guaranteeing the safety and adequacy of an IES. This paper aims to build a capacity reliability model of an IES. The multi-energy correlation in the IES can generate the dependent capacity outage states, which is the distinguished reliability feature of an IES from a generation system. To address this issue, this paper presents a novel analytical method to model the dependent multi-energy capacity outage states and their joint outage probabilities of an IES for its reliability assessment. To model the dependent multi-energy capacity outage states, a new multi-dimensional matrix method is presented in the capacity outage probability table (COPT) model of the generation system. Furthermore, a customized multi-dimensional discrete convolution algorithm is proposed to compute the reliability model, and the adequacy indices are calculated in an accurate and efficient way. Case studies demonstrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method. The capacity value of multi-energy conversion facilities is also quantified by the proposed method.

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    • A Two-stage Adaptive Robust Model for Residential Micro-CHP Expansion Planning

      2021, 9(4):826-836. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2021.000001

      Abstract (522) HTML (7) PDF 1.26 M (151) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:This paper addresses the planning problem of residential micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) systems (including micro-generation units, auxiliary boilers, and thermal storage tanks) considering the associated technical and economic factors. Since the accurate values of the thermal and electrical loads of this system cannot be exactly predicted for the planning horizon, the thermal and electrical load uncertainties are modeled using a two-stage adaptive robust optimization method based on a polyhedral uncertainty set. A solution method, which is composed of column-and-constraint generation (C&CG) algorithm and block coordinate descent (BCD) method, is proposed to efficiently solve this adaptive robust optimization model. Numerical results from a practical case study show the effective performance of the proposed adaptive robust model for residential micro-CHP planning and its solution method.

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    • Forecasting Scenario Generation for Multiple Wind Farms Considering Time-series Characteristics and Spatial-temporal Correlation

      2021, 9(4):837-848. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000935

      Abstract (543) HTML (12) PDF 4.06 M (147) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Scenario forecasting methods have been widely studied in recent years to cope with the wind power uncertainty problem. The main difficulty of this problem is to accurately and comprehensively reflect the time-series characteristics and spatial-temporal correlation of wind power generation. In this paper, the marginal distribution model and the dependence structure are combined to describe these complex characteristics. On this basis, a scenario generation method for multiple wind farms is proposed. For the marginal distribution model, the autoregressive integrated moving average-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity-t (ARIMA-GARCH-t) model is proposed to capture the time-series characteristics of wind power generation. For the dependence structure, a time-varying regular vine mixed Copula (TRVMC) model is established to capture the spatial-temporal correlation of multiple wind farms. Based on the data from 8 wind farms in Northwest China, sufficient scenarios are generated. The effectiveness of the scenarios is evaluated in 3 aspects. The results show that the generated scenarios have similar fluctuation characteristics, autocorrelation, and crosscorrelation with the actual wind power sequences.

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    • Synthetic Time Series Generation Model for Analysis of Power System Operation and Expansion with High Renewable Energy Penetration

      2021, 9(4):849-858. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000747

      Abstract (500) HTML (2) PDF 1.07 M (151) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The increasing integration of renewable energy sources into current power systems has posed the challenge of adequately representing the statistical properties associated with their variable power generation. In this paper, a novel procedure is proposed to select a proper synthetic time series generation model for renewable energy sources to analyze power system problems. The procedure takes advantage of the objective of the specific analysis to be performed and the statistical characteristics of the available time series. The aim is to determine the suitable model to be used for generating synthetic time series of renewable energy sources. A set of indicators is proposed to verify that the statistical properties of synthetic time series fit the statistical properties of the original data. The proposal can be integrated into systematic tools available for data analysis without compromising the representation of the statistical properties of the original time series. The procedure is tested using real data from the New Zealand power system in a mid-term analysis on integrating wind power plants into the power system. The results show that the proposed procedure reduces the error obtained in analyzing power systems compared with reference models.

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    • Power Factor Estimation of Distributed Energy Resources Using Voltage Magnitude Measurements

      2021, 9(4):859-869. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2021.000086

      Abstract (508) HTML (20) PDF 2.89 M (148) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:This paper presents a new method for the estimation of the injection state and power factor of distributed energy resources (DERs) using voltage magnitude measurements only. A physics-based linear model is used to develop estimation heuristics for net injections of real and reactive power at a set of buses under study, allowing a distribution engineer to form a robust estimate for the operating state and the power factor of the DER at those buses. The method demonstrates and exploits a mathematical distinction between the voltage sensitivity signatures of real and reactive power injections for a fixed power system model. Case studies on various test feeders for a model of the distribution circuit and statistical analyses are presented to demonstrate the validity of the estimation method. The results of this paper can be used to improve the limited information about inverter parameters and operating state during renewable planning, which helps mitigate the uncertainty inherent in their integration.

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    • >Original Paper
    • Decision Support System for Adaptive Restoration Control of Transmission System

      2021, 9(4):870-885. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2021.000030

      Abstract (580) HTML (3) PDF 1.41 M (164) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The power system restoration control has a higher uncertainty level than the preventive control of cascading failures. In order to ensure the feasibility of the decision support system of restoration control, a decision support framework for adaptive restoration control of transmission system is proposed, which can support the coordinated restoration of multiple partitions, coordinated restoration of units and loads, and coordination of multi-partition decision-making process and actual restoration process. The proposed framework is divided into two layers, global coordination layer and partition optimization layer. The upper layer partitions the transmission system according to the power outage scenario, constantly and dynamically adjusts the partitions during the restoration process, and optimizes the time-space decision-making of inter-partition connectivity. For each partition, the lower layer pre-selects restoration targets according to the estimated restoration income, optimizes the corresponding restoration paths, and evaluates the restoration plans according to the expected net income per unit of power consumption. During the restoration process, if the restoration operation such as energizing the outage branch fails, the current restoration plan will be adaptively switched to the sub-optimal one or re-optimized if necessary. The framework includes two operation modes, i.e., the on-line operation mode and training simulation mode, and provides an information interaction interface for collaborative restoration with related distribution systems. The effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed framework is demonstrated by simulations using the modified IEEE 118-bus system.

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    • Sensitivity-based Vulnerability Assessment of State Estimation

      2021, 9(4):875-885. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000658

      Abstract (550) HTML (8) PDF 1.78 M (170) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:We propose a technique to assess the vulnerability of the power system state estimation. We aim at identifying the measurements that have a high potential of being the target of false data injection attacks. From the perspective of the adversary, such measurements have the following characteristics: being influential on the variable estimates;corrupting their measured values is likely to be undetected. Additionally, such characteristics should not change significantly with the system operation condition. The proposed technique provides a systematic way of identifying the measurements with such characteristics. We illustrate our methodology on a 4-bus system, the New England 39-bus system, and the IEEE 118-bus test system, respectively.

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    • Data-driven Robust State Estimation Through Off-line Learning and On-line Matching

      2021, 9(4):897-909. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000835

      Abstract (577) HTML (5) PDF 2.20 M (144) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:To overcome the shortcomings of model-driven state estimation methods, this paper proposes a data-driven robust state estimation (DDSE) method through off-line learning and on-line matching. At the off-line learning stage, a linear regression equation is presented by clustering historical data from supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), which provides a guarantee for solving the over-learning problem of the existing DDSE methods; then a novel robust state estimation method that can be transformed into quadratic programming (QP) models is proposed to obtain the mapping relationship between the measurements and the state variables (MRBMS). The proposed QP models can well solve the problem of collinearity in historical data. Furthermore, the off-line learning stage is greatly accelerated from three aspects including reducing historical categories, constructing tree retrieval structure for known topologies, and using sensitivity analysis when solving QP models. At the on-line matching stage, by quickly matching the current snapshot with the historical ones, the corresponding MRBMS can be obtained, and then the estimation values of the state variables can be obtained. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed DDSE method has obvious advantages in terms of suppressing over-learning problems, dealing with collinearity problems, robustness, and computation efficiency.

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    • A Hybrid Coordinated Design Method for Power System Stabilizer and FACTS Device Based on Synchrosqueezed Wavelet Transform and Stochastic Subspace Identification

      2021, 9(4):910-918. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2019.000496

      Abstract (678) HTML (5) PDF 1.50 M (143) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The occurrence of low-frequency electromechanical oscillations is a major problem in the effective operation of power systems. The scrutiny of these oscillations provides substantial information about power system stability and security. In this paper, a new method is introduced based on a combination of synchrosqueezed wavelet transform and the stochastic subspace identification (SSI) algorithm to investigate the low-frequency electromechanical oscillations of large-scale power systems. Then, the estimated modes of the power system are used for the design of the power system stabilizer and the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) device. In this optimization problem, the control parameters are set using a hybrid approach composed of the Prony and residual methods and the modified fruit fly optimization algorithm. The proposed mode estimation method and the controller design are simulated in MATLAB using two test case systems, namely IEEE 2-area 4-generator and New England-New York 68-bus 16-generator systems. The simulation results demonstrate the high performance of the proposed method in estimation of local and inter-area modes, and indicate the improvements in oscillation damping and power system stability.

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    • Data-driven Optimal Control Strategy for Virtual Synchronous Generator via Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach

      2021, 9(4):919-929. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000267

      Abstract (560) HTML (4) PDF 1.43 M (162) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:This paper aims at developing a data-driven optimal control strategy for virtual synchronous generator (VSG) in the scenario where no expert knowledge or requirement for system model is available. Firstly, the optimal and adaptive control problem for VSG is transformed into a reinforcement learning task. Specifically, the control variables, i.e., virtual inertia and damping factor, are defined as the actions. Meanwhile, the active power output, angular frequency and its derivative are considered as the observations. Moreover, the reward mechanism is designed based on three preset characteristic functions to quantify the control targets: maintaining the deviation of angular frequency within special limits; preserving well-damped oscillations for both the angular frequency and active power output; obtaining slow frequency drop in the transient process. Next, to maximize the cumulative rewards, a decentralized deep policy gradient algorithm, which features model-free and faster convergence, is developed and employed to find the optimal control policy. With this effort, a data-driven adaptive VSG controller can be obtained. By using the proposed controller, the inverter-based distributed generator can adaptively adjust its control variables based on current observations to fulfill the expected targets in model-free fashion. Finally, simulation results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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    • Accommodation of Curtailed Wind Power by Electric Boilers Equipped in Different Locations of Heat-supply Network for Power System with CHPs

      2021, 9(4):930-939. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2019.000151

      Abstract (519) HTML (4) PDF 1.11 M (144) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Electric boilers (EBs) provide an alternative method to deal with the accommodation of curtailed wind power. To pursue the minimum coal consumption in the system, a dispatching model integrating combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants and EBs in different locations is developed, and the penalty of wind power curtailment and cost of EB employment are also incorporated in the model. The transmission loss and transportation lag of heat-supply network as well as the elasticity of heat load are considered in this paper. A kind of constrained programming with stochastic and fuzzy parameters is applied to deal with the uncertainties. A case in East Inner Mongolia in China demonstrates that the EBs are able to absorb curtailed wind power and supply the heat. The results indicate that the utility of EBs in the primary or secondary heat-supply network to accommodate curtailed wind power is mainly related to the efficiency of heat transmission and the elasticity of heat load.

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    • Real-time Locally Optimal Schedule for Electric Vehicle Load via Diversity-maximization NSGA-II

      2021, 9(4):940-950. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000093

      Abstract (488) HTML (1) PDF 1.10 M (148) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:As distributed energy storage equipments, electric vehicles (EVs) have great potential for applications in power systems. Meanwhile, reasonable optimization of the charging time of EVs can reduce the users expense. Thus, the schedule of the EV load requires multi-objective optimization. A diversity-maximization non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (DM-NSGA)-II is developed to perform multi-objective optimization by considering the power load profile, the userscharging cost, and battery degradation. Furthermore, a real-time locally optimal schedule is adopted by utilizing a flexible time scale. The case study illustrates that the proposed DM-NSGA-II can prevent being trapped in a relatively limited region so as to diversify the optimal results and provide trade-off solutions to decision makers. The simulation analysis shows that the variable time scale can continuously involve the present EVs in the real-time optimization rather than rely on the forecasting data. The schedule of the EV load is more practical without the loss of accuracy.

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    • Probabilistic Assessment of Impact of Flexible Loads Under Network Tariffs in Low-voltage Distribution Networks

      2021, 9(4):951-962. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2019.000136

      Abstract (535) HTML (7) PDF 1.16 M (145) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Given the historically static nature of low-voltage networks, distribution network companies do not possess the tools for dealing with an increasingly variable demand due to the high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). Within this context, this paper proposes a probabilistic framework for tariff design that minimises the impact of DER on network performance, stabilises the revenue of network company, and improves the equity of network cost allocation. To deal with the lack of customers’ response, we also show how DER-specific tariffs can be complemented with an automated home energy management system (HEMS) that reduces peak demand while retaining the desired comfort level. The proposed framework comprises a nonparametric Bayesian model which statistically generates synthetic load and PV traces, a hot-water-use statistical model, a novel HEMS to schedule customers’ controllable devices, and a probabilistic power flow model. Test cases using both energy- and demand-based network tariffs show that flat tariffs with a peak demand component reduce the customers’ cost, and alleviate network constraints. This demonstrates, firstly, the efficacy of the proposed tool for the development of tariffs that are beneficial for the networks with a high penetration of DERs, and secondly, how customers’ HEM systems can be part of the solution.

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    • >Short Letter
    • Conic Optimal Energy Flow of Integrated Electricity and Natural Gas Systems

      2021, 9(4):963-967. DOI: 10.35833/MPCE.2020.000244

      Abstract (577) HTML (5) PDF 789.16 K (158) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In this letter, we propose a market-based bi-level conic optimal energy flow (OEF) model of integrated electricity and natural gas systems (IENGSs). Conic alternating current optimal power flow (ACOPF) is formulated in the upper-level model, and the generation cost of natural gas fired generation units (NGFGUs) is calculated based on natural gas locational marginal prices (NG-LMPs). The market clearing process of natural gas system is modeled in the lower-level model. The bi-level model is then transferred into a mixed-integer second-order cone programming (MISOCP) problem. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed conic OEF model.

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